Diffractive optical elements (DOEs) are a general class of optical elements that include diffraction gratings, binary optics, and holographic optical elements. These optical elements diffract light by producing periodic changes in the amplitude, phase, or both the amplitude and phase of an incident wave.
In this technical guide, we discuss how to model diffractive optical elements in ASAP® (Advanced Systems Analysis Program) from Breault Research Organization (BRO). These elements diffract light by producing periodic changes in the phase of the incident wave. The ASAP Primer discusses how the laws of reflection and refraction are used to transform a ray at a specular interface into reflected and refracted rays. In this document, we will learn about a theory for diffracting light from phase gratings according to the grating equation law.
Before you learn how to perform DOE simulations, we must first introduce certain diffractive optical element definitions, nomenclature, and concepts. For some readers, this will be a review and for others it may be the first time that you have seen these definitions and concepts. In either case, you must first have a basic understanding of the physical behavior of diffractive optical elements to associate those definitions and concepts with ASAP procedures and commands for performing DOE simulations.
The remainder of this document is divided into two primary sections:
"Fundamentals of Diffractive Optical Elements" introduces definitions and concepts. You may choose to skip this section if you already have a background in the subject. Introductory topics include the grating equation, transmission and reflection phase diffraction gratings, binary optics, and holographic optical elements.
"Simulating Diffractive Optical Elements in ASAP" presents DOE definitions and concepts with the equivalent ASAP procedures and commands for simulating DOE systems. You will learn how to set up a variety of phase gratings, binary optics, and holograms.
This technical publication, known as a BRO Technical Guide, is part of a larger group of documents known as "BRO documentation". All "Technical Guides" are considered "BRO Documentation."
Summary of document changes.
Equation 41, page 66: replaced symbol p with lower-case letter p. (March 20, 2013)
This document received a technical review for accuracy and completeness. Changes were made for clarification.